25 DGI sangbog, 26 Kjær and RauffNielsen, Stævnehåndbog, ,pp. – 27 Bjarne Ibsen,’Vi hardet sågodtsammen,men hvorfor skal det være en. DGI sangbog. 1 like. Book. DGI sangbog. Privacy · Terms. About. DGI sangbog. Book. 1 person likes this topic. Want to like this Page? Sign up for Facebook to. the refrain of the official festival song, launched by DGI, the . federation of Danish popular sport, DGI, has a songbook of its own, DGI sangbog.
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This article was written for Grundtvig-Studier, red. The way of body academy – People s education through sport in Denmark 1 Henning Eichberg Historical background: By this educational technique, the teacher exercises power from above it is him who can grant or withhold certificates and diplomas. There exists, however, an alternative to this authoritarian structure: Students interrogate the professor.
The way of body academy – People s education through sport in Denmark 1
Sangbob student wants to know, and the teacher dfi to answer the professor is examined from below. That is, why there is no grading in people s education, there are no diplomas. Educational evaluation is not subjected to the type of objectification, which makes it possible to transfer results of a certain person in space and time: This is what the student is worth.
Instead, evaluation develops in dialogue, by which the student finds out what she or he has achieved.
This alternative view of achievement has its implications for sport, too. Sport in the popular academies is not or not primarily a way of objectifying a person s bodily achievement, but a way of personal development and social interaction. That is why the connections between non-authoritarian education, people s academies and dgo deserve some closer examination.
It lead back to the historical roots of non-formal education in the nineteenth century s Denmark, the main stimulator of which was N.
Grundtvig and popular education The biography of N. Grundtvig was a story of a spiritual quest and inner contradictions. Inhe experienced a psychic break-down and turned towards Christian fundamentalism.
Later he became involved in the pietistic spiritual revivals and took a further step towards an independent position with his main work Mythology sagnbog the North Grundtvig s religious position, which survived in the hundreds of psalms and other songs he composed, has been called a white or joyful Christianity, in contrast to the sorrowful or black Christianity of other congregations.
First human being and Christian afterwards: This can be understood as Christian and pagan at the same time, expressing a deeply unorthodox humanism.
In the political field, Grundtvig changed as well. In the beginning, he was a convinced royalist because he opposed the liberals and distrusted the German-oriented bourgeoisie. He was also elected to the first Danish parliament in and served tothen re-elected again in In he was nevertheless regarded as the informal leader of the left-wing opposition, and from Grundtvigians joined with other groups to form the united left-wing party, Venstre.
Just as in Herder s thinking, these folk words had an anti-colonial character. The meaning of folkelig was more than political it was related to what psychologists and sociologists later called identity.
Grundtvig s opposition to this educational power, which subjected helpless children to public authority and deformed adult people for the service of the state, was in some respect anti-institutional.
The English university colleges created bonds between professors and students. This entered into Grundtvig s utopia of a school for life combining family education and boarding school. The “school for life” was not based on books, which is fundamental for the “school for death”. Students interrogate the teachers, not or not only the teacher the student. There are no examinations. Grundtvig s answer was the historical-poetical method. That is why we have to pay attention to our own myths and to those of other traditions.
Myths can contribute to enlightenment, but they challenge us always with the question: Without emotional engagement, there is no understanding.
Sangboh, folkelig oplysning popular enlightenment and livsoplysning enlightenment of life are connected. There is no people s education without personal development, and no personal development without folkelig enlightenment.
The human being is not alone in the world. This was the basis of a pedagogy of experience. Similar ideas reappeared in the anti-pedagogy of the s and s, with Ivan Illich and others. One of these innovations was bodily activity, starting swngbog gymnastics and later extended to sport, dance and various outdoor activities. The educational approach of the free Grundtvigian schools has strongly influenced the public school system in Denmark.
Normally, state systems of education focus either on general programs for the pupils by national programs of education, patterns of discipline etc. Or they focus on the qualifications of the individual individual competence. The Danish school system tends into a third direction: The class is treated as a community of togetherness, like a family, and that is why neither grades nor the threat of expulsion plays any central role.
The free schools are part of Danish skolefrihed, freedom of school. The Danish constitution guarantees this liberty also for 2. Freedom of schooling means the liberty not so send one’s children to a state school: Parents are free to keep their sangbbog at home.
Free schools for children and people s academies for grown-ups express the liberty to choose one s own way of being educated. There does not exist any obligatory book or foundation book not even a book from Grundtvig.
The only book used in all people s academies is the blue songbook. The schools are self-administrated, independent of the state, of enterprises and organizations, and they are autonomous in control of their educational contents. But they are financially supported by the state and therefore subjected to certain rules as defined by the Ministry of Education. They do not use term s reports, diplomas and certificates to classify the students, nor do they work with examinations and defined pensum tasks.
Tolerance and the historical-poetical method mark the approach. In practice, this is expressed by the common morning assembly, joint singing, group work and a general focus on creative activities and arts. Sports and gymnastics are part of this education through experience, both on the general academies and on special sport academies. Because of the principle of living-together, the teacher stands face to face to the students in another way than in other types of education.
The experimental process between teacher and student can be compared to the master-apprenticeship, which is practiced in sports, and the same is true for the tradition from one teachers generation to the other. The students are usually between 18 and 25 years old when joining a course of the academy for a period between three and eight months. However, there are variations in the social profile of the single schools depending of their profile sanghog education. Academies of sport and of manual-practical activities are more attractive for young people from the weaker social strata.
Right-wing politicians have talked about years idled away. In comparison with other countries, the close connection between the free academies 3. This developed in dti historical phases. But elements of physical culture were present in their daily practice.
The folk academies were farmers schools with some features inherited from the religious revivalist movements, from Grundtvig s Nordic Christianity and from national liberal patriotism. The students were taught by lectures and some manual labour. It was more for practical purposes that gymnastics and exercises of the Danish type, similar to German Turnen, were here and there introduced as healthy exercise and compensation for sitting learning, as joyful alternation and entertainment.
But it developed in sanvbog intermediary space between the real subjects. This process started on the people s academy in Vallekilde under its headmaster Ernst Trier where students in began to train Swedish Lingian gymnastics, and a group of teachers was sent to Sweden in order to learn this system more in details.
The way of body academy – People s education through sport in Denmark 1 – PDF
Subsequently, Danish people s academies began, one after the other, to introduce the Lingian gymnastics. This change happened in a time of inner rgi, when Denmark was threatened by a civil war between the majority of the democratic farmers and the ruling minority of aristocrats and landowners.
Instead of military confrontation, people s academies and popular gymnastics became part of a peaceful cultural revolution, which finally overthrew the right-wing dictatorship. This program of general formation had, however, at its side gdi practical subjects from agriculture and sangbov. Ernst Trier expressed the new Grundtvigian philosophy of gymnastics in a famous speech, which he held at the opening of Vallekilde gymnastic hall in Gymnastics shall promote what is divine in the human being what distinguishes the human being from the animal.
However, the real practice of gymnastics was rather poor and stereotypical, being derived from military-like exercises in rank and file. Both the people s academies and the so-called popular gymnastics i. Lingian gymnastics contributed to the change of political power in Denmark. Inparliamentary democracy became reality. A sanngbog element in this combination of movements was the cooperative movement of the farmers.
Between anda strong network of associations developed in dgii fields of production and consumption. This cooperative movement being the economic wing of the 4. And folkelig gymnastics in the villages became a bodily link between the one and ddgi other, between the idea of folkelig self-organization and the practical economic cooperation. There opened a gap between more positivistic and natural-scientific orientations and the more mythological tradition.
And at the beginning of the twentieth century, the rising workers movement opened its own people s academies. With the realization of parliamentary democracy inthe democratic agenda of the academies had lost its sharpness. And with the returning of South Jutland to Denmark inthe national agenda was weakened, too.
New contents were needed. Important ingredients in this quest of new-orientation were bodily activities cgi movement culture. In this phase, a gap opened between the book and the physical. Sport did not play any important role in the selfunderstanding of the popular academies.
In their program, sport had the place of a leisure entertainment. On the other hand, the sports organizations started to build up their own system of more specialized courses outside the academies.