Database Administrator’s Guide. Contents. Previous Next. Page of Search. This Book This Release. Table of Contents. open Oracle Database. Overview of Triggers. A trigger is a named program unit that is stored in the database and fired (executed) in response to a specified event. The specified event. Prerequisites. The trigger must be in your own schema or you must have ALTER ANY TRIGGER system privilege. In addition, to alter a trigger on DATABASE.

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Compound Trigger Example Scenario: Oracle Database automatically executes a trigger when a specified event takes place, which may be in the form of a system event or a DML statement being issued against the table. You cannot define your own event conditions. You would write such a trigger to place restrictions on DML statements issued on a table, for example, when such statements could oracls issued. Traditionally, triggers execute as the definer of the trigger. Then the statement updates 2 to 3 in p, and the visparadores updates both rows of value 2 to 3 in f.

Because declarative referential constraints are not supported between tables on different nodes of a distributed database, the mutating table restrictions do not apply to triggers that access remote nodes. Triggers are not reliable security mechanisms, because they are programmatic and easy to disable. They fire for each nested table element being modified.

For the options of compound triggers, see Compound Triggers. To ofacle an object materialized by an object view in the client-side object cache and flush it back to the persistent store, you must specify INSTEAD OF triggers, unless the object view is modifiable.

For example, if you create a trigger that should be fired after all CREATE events, then the disparadorse itself does not fire after the creation, because the correct information about this dissparadores was not committed at the time when the trigger on CREATE events was fired.

Return status from publication callout functions for all events are ignored.

Before, after, each row and table level triggers [Oracle]

To reference columns of tables on which the trigger is diwparadores defined, you must specify: These triggers can be defined over views, and they fire instead of the actual DML. Only system-defined database events can be detected this way. No database operations allowed in the trigger. Database event firing the trigger: During disparadorse, the database drops all persistent compiler switch settings, retrieves them again from the session, and stores them at the end of compilation.


Consider a library system where books are arranged under their respective titles. When the database is opened for the first time after a role change. A compound trigger defined on a table has one or more of the timing-point sections described in Table The object privileges to the schema objects referenced in the trigger body must be granted to the orale owner explicitly not through a role.

Transparent Event Logging and Triggers Triggers are very useful when you want to transparently perform a related change in the database following certain events.

Compilation involves three stages:. For each of these triggering events, Oracle Database opens an autonomous transaction scope, fires the trigger, and commits any separate transaction regardless of any existing user transaction.

9 Using Triggers

The trigger in Example fires when DML operations are performed on the table. In particular, if an uncommitted transaction has disparadotes values that a trigger being fired either must read query or write updatethen the SQL statements in the body of the trigger being fired use the following guidelines: For example, to enable the disabled trigger named Reorderenter the following statement:.

Check Event Attribute Functions before using an event attribute function, because its effects might be undefined rather than producing an error condition. Although triggers can be written to record information similar to that recorded by the Diisparadores statement, triggers should be used only when more detailed audit information is required. The trigger cannot miss rows orace have been changed but not committed by another transaction, because the foreign key constraint guarantees that no matching foreign key rows are locked before the after-row trigger is called.

Returns true if the specified oacle is dropped. Constraints defined using the standard integrity constraint features are much easier to write and are less prone to errors, when compared with comparable constraints defined by triggers.

Returns true if the current event is creating a nested table. The action can include publishing the event to a queue so that subscribers receive notifications. Returns true if the privileges are granted with grant option.

There are many cases where referential integrity can be enforced using triggers. Before each row that the idsparadores statement affects. An enabled dispafadores executes its trigger body if a triggering statement is entered and the trigger restriction if any evaluates to TRUE. If you create a trigger on a base table of a materialized view, then you must ensure that the trigger does not fire during a refresh of the materialized view.


Trigger names must be unique with respect to other triggers in the same schema. Queries see the current read-consistent materialized view of referenced tables and any data changed within the dlsparadores transaction. Each subsequent trigger sees the changes made by the previously fired triggers.

With AFTER row triggers, affected data blocks must be read logical read, not physical read once for the trigger and then again for the triggering statement.

Enabling and Disabling Triggers

To avoid this problem, either forbid multiple-row updates to p that change the primary key and reuse existing primary key values, or track updates to foreign key values and modify the trigger to ensure that no row is updated twice.

Starts a separate transaction and commits it after firing the triggers. To achieve the same effect with simple triggers, you had to model the common state with an ancillary package.

Within the code of the trigger body, you can execute blocks of code depending on the kind of DML operation that fired the trigger: The firing order of compound triggers is not guaranteed. To create a trigger in any schema on a table in any schema, or on another user’s schema schema. This next trigger also uses triggers to do auditing. Provide sophisticated auditing Prevent invalid transactions Enforce referential integrity either those actions not supported by declarative constraints or across nodes in a distributed database Enforce complex business rules Enforce complex security authorizations Provide transparent event logging Automatically generate derived column values Enable building complex views that are updatable Track database events This section provides an example of each of these trigger applications.

You may need to set up the following data structures for the examples to work: You cannot control the order in which oraclee row triggers fire.