16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada – Giovani Sartori. 5 likes. Book. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.

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Further, Ames asserts that the feature which best defines the Brazilian institutional arrangement is the excessive number of veto players, emerging from the electoral system and federalism 1.

In all the roll-calls, the percentage of deputies who followed the party’s recommendation was based on the caucus, not only on those present on the floor. Furthermore, the administration paid most of their attention to the passage of the reelection proposal in the first semester of As to the DVS 3, which aimed at the exclusion of the so-called “indemnity funds” from the calculation of the public service’s wage ceiling, it was defeated by 27 votes towith PFL and PSDB siding with the administration.

For these authors, the current institutional arrangement is unable to promote the equilibrium between desirable attributes of democracy such as stability, representation and accountability, since the prevalence of the first attribute has led to a poor performance of Brazilian democracy in the last two.

The Journal of Politics67 1: Thirdly, the amendment cancelled the parity then subsisting between raises paid to working and retired public servants, in the case of future public employees; this parity is to survive only for current servants who are to obtain full pensions.

The proposal was passed in the Senate and the Chamber was evaluating it when this article was being written. Public Choice Underestimating social and congressional resistances in Congress, “the reform proposed changes in pension funds, in the general regime of social security, and in the one of public servants” Melo, Our key assertion is giovaanni a change of contextual character, the switch of forces in government and in opposition, caused a remarkable alteration in the distribution of preferences and resources among actors, which reflected on the floor behavior.


O que foi escrito sobre democracia – DAGOBAH

In the other gilvanni, the PSDB majority decided to play the electoral arena game, disregarding recommendations from the party and opposing the federal executive Tellingly, after votes teoriw over and defeats revisifada for, the administration passed a change in the standing rules which limited according to size criteria the number of petitions for separate voting entitled to each party Figueiredo and Limongi Even though a broad consensus had been built in Brazilian society concerning the inevitability of a reform, there were bitter controversies as to its extent, timing and on whom most costs should fall on.

Such a difference could lie in the support mustered by each president in Congress in their respective periods. New Haven, Yale University Press. Dados44 4: Probably because its strong identification in the ideological spectrum as a rightist party allows it to fit more comfortably in the opposition, without undue political costs among its supporters, challenging frontally the PT as it always had done.

From one administration to the other, parties like PT, PC do B, PSDB and PFL came to experience a situation that may be characterized deemocracia the fact that their previous preferences in relation to social security policy became contradictory with their positions in both governmental and congressional arenas.

This strategy was simply not available to the party. Journal of Theoretical Politics5 1: Tdoria York, Nova Science. Political Science Quarterlyvol.

O que foi escrito sobre democracia

For coalition leaderseither within or outside Congress, the goal is to influence as much as they can the formation of public agenda and decisions pertaining to it. In the first, we shall compare the contexts in which the proposals for reform were presented and discussed, with the aim of highlighting the factors responsible for the noticeable difference observed in the two processes of reform.

The members of the original electoral coalition exercised greater discipline than the parties that joined them later: Dados43 3: This “clearing” benefited the PT-led government, which could concentrate its efforts in two issues: Journal of Latin American Studies The proposal sent by the Chamber of Deputies was discussed for four months and ultimately passed in second round in December Only the PFL leadership recommended rejecting the measure, a course of action which did not prevent, as we will show, many of its deputies from voting in favor of the reform.


The Journal of Politics62 1: According to Ames, the assertion that Congress is cooperative and disciplined is mistaken in the following counts: After all, the proposal sent by Lula, PEC 40, expressed a more radical reform than PEC 33, the one sponsored by Cardoso and against which PT deputies voted cohesively, with discipline, on all occasions they could express themselves.

Social security reform in two stages

For Melo ;in his study of party switching, one cannot speak of cohesion for most parties in the Chamber, as long as deputies have another option than following their current leader to have access to patronage shares: Legislative Studies Quarterly29 1: Data presented by Figueiredo and Limongi Support for the administration on this issue reached the following percentages among pro-reform parties: In these circumstances, the presidential agenda is passed and political stability is preserved, although shortcomings of representation and accountability may come up as another outcome of the game.

All accounted for, some comrades opted to march with their people into this other arena. The article is divided into three parts. The migratory flux towards pro-administration parties continued unabated inwhen 52 deputies were co-opted, especially by PTB and PL, against five that democdacia.

These changes led to the concentration of agenda powers in the hands of party leaders and the president, restricting significantly the discretion of other actors. Defeated in its PEC, the administration summoned Congress extraordinarily and giovannl in passing the retirees’ contribution through an ordinary bill, counting on the support of many non-reelected deputies Figueiredo and Limongi, ; Melo,