asesmen disleksia · asesmen disleksia · 9. Referat Disleksia. child. Disleksia pada anak. disleksia merupakan gangguan membaca. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) refers both to the study of individuals and groups who are learning a language subsequent to learning. Makalah Baterai – Standar Zinc (1) – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text Disleksia. Uploaded by. Stephanie Virgana · Struktur Atom. Uploaded by.

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S e cond Language Acquisition SLA refers both to the study of individuals and groups who are learning a language subsequent to learning their first one as young children, and to the process of learning that language. The additional language is called a second language L2even though it may actually be the third, fourth, or tenth to be mqkalah.

It is also commonly called a target language TLwhich refers to any language that is the aim or goal of learning. The scope of SLA includes informal L2 learning that takes place in naturalistic contexts, formal L2 learning that takes place in classrooms, and L2 learning that involves a mixture of these settings and circumstances.

A combination of formal and informal learning takes place when a student from the USA takes Chinese language classes in Taipei or Beijing while also using Chinese outside of class for social interaction and daily living experiences, or when an adult immigrant from Ethiopia in Israel learns Hebrew both from attending special classes and dislekdia interacting with co-workers and other residents in Hebrew.

When we talk about what is being acquired in SLA, it is not enough just to talk disle,sia the language itself. We must also include the social and cultural knowledge embedded in the language being learned, that is required for appropriate language use. What must L2 learners know and be able to do in order to communicate effectively? Part of this knowledge involves different ways of categorizing objects and events and expressing experiences.

What difference does group membership and identity make in regard to what is learned, how it is acquired, and why some learners are more successful than others? In this chapter, we focus attention on two levels makkalah context that affect language learning: Makwlah microsocial focus deals with the potential effects of different immediately surrounding circumstances, while the macrosocial focus relates SLA to broader cultural, political, and educational environments.

In trying to understand the process of second language acquisition, we are seeking to answer three basic questions:. From a social perspective, the notion of linguistic competence account maakalah what is being acquired in any language that is going to be used for communicative purposes. The concept of communicative competence became a basic tenet makalaah the then-emerging field of sociolinguistics, and was soon mmakalah as well by many specialists in the field of SLA and language teaching.

It involves knowing not only the vocabulary, phonology, grammar, and other aspects of linguistic structure although that is a critical component of knowledge but also when to speak or notwhat to say to whom, and how to say it appropriately in any given fisleksia. Further, it involves the social and cultural knowledge speakers are presumed to have which enables them to use and interpret linguistic forms.

The term language community refers to a group of people who share knowledge of a common language to at least some extent. Multilingual individuals are often members of more than one language community — generally to different degrees, and the one or ones they orient themselves makalqh at any given moment is reflected not only in which segment of their linguistic knowledge they select, but which interaction skills they use, and which features of their cultural knowledge dis,eksia activate.

As we have already seen, the competence of nonnative speakers dislrksia a language may differ significantly from the competence of native speakers, even as they may participate in the same or overlapping language communities.

Differences between monolingual and multilingual communicative competence are due in part to the different social functions of first and second language learning, and to disleksai differences between learning language and learning culture. L1 learning for children is an integral part of their socialization into their native language community: L2 learning may be part of second culture learning and adaptation, but the relationship of SLA to social and disleosia learning differs greatly with circumstances.

In discussing linguistic and psychological perspectives on SLA, I have for. This is relevant to differential considerations not only of what is being learned in the diselksia of SLA from social perspectives, but of how it is being learned, and of why some learners are more successful than others.

What we are here distinguishing as an SL is generally learned and used within the context of a language community which dominantly includes members who speak it natively; it is needed to participate in that community socially, academically, politically, and economically.

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In contrast, students learning an FL usually do so within the context of their own native culture, often have little opportunity to interact with members of the language community who speak the FL natively unless they study abroadand typically have little opportunity or need to participate fully in the FL society — indeed, too often the sole reason for studying the language is that it is required for graduation.

An AL is learned in a context where it will function for political or technological purposes, and when its use will generally be limited to these social domains; to the extent an AL is required at all for face-to-face interaction, it is likely to be used in linguistically diverse settings which require participants to make use of a common language code for a restricted range of social functions.


Examples might include use of English by a Thai speaker for international trade, an Igbo speaker in Nigeria for national-level political meetings, or a Chinese speaker for pan-Asian economic conferences. Within a microsocial focus, our first topic will be L2 variationwhich has.

Our second microsocial topic is input and interactionwhere we consider how native speakers often modify their language in communicating with L2 learners, how social and cultural factors may affect the quantity and quality of input, and how cultural knowledge and prior experience are involved in processing and interpreting input.

One defining characteristic of L2 learner language is that it is highly v ariable. Some of the variability is due to changes that occur in what learners know and can produce as they progressively achieve higher levels of L2 proficiency. One of the most important contributions of sociolinguistics beginning with Labov has been the demonstration that much of what earlier linguists had considered unsystematic irregularity in language production can be seen to follow regular and predictable patterns, when treated as variable features.

These are multiple linguistic forms which are systematically or predictably used by different speakers of a language, or by the same speakers at different times, with the same or very similar meaning or function.

They occur at every linguistic level: For example, native speakers of Makaalah may say: Which variable feature occurs in the production of any one speaker native or language learner depends largely on the communicative contexts in which it has been learned and is used.

Some relevant contextual dimensions are:. Macrosocial factors, which will be discussed later, may also influence linguistic variation. These include features of the larger political setting within which language learning and use takes place, including the social position and role of users e. For example, standard and prestige L2 forms are more likely to be used by international students or diplomats while they are functioning within those social roles than by the same individuals while they are shopping in a market or visiting dsileksia sites.

A substantial amount of research on the effect of microsocial contexts has been based on the framework of Accommodation Theory.


Speakers usually unconsciously change their pronunciation and even the grammaticalcomplexity of sentences they use to sound more like whomever they are talking to. This accounts in part for why native speakers tend mamalah simplify their language when they are talking to an L2 learner who is not fluent which we will discuss belowand why L2 learners may acquire somewhat different varieties of the target language when they have different friends.

Given similar linguistic, psychological, and microsocial contexts, for instance, female immigrants in the US may hear and use more standard variants than male immigrants from the same language and cultural background — malalah part because females are more likely to find employment in middle- or upperclass dispeksia or in service positions, makalh males are more likely to find employment in blue-collar occupations.

Workplace stratification affects both the nature of language input and group identity. Language input to the learner is absolutely necessary for either L1 jakalah L2 learning to take place, but the nature of its role is in dispute. Within the psychological approaches discussed in Chapter 4, those working from an IP disleeksia consider input which is attended to i.

Social approaches also consider the nature and role of interaction in acquisition, and ways in which it is helpful — and perhaps necessary — for the development of advanced levels of L2 proficiency. From a social perspective, interaction is generally seen as essential in providing learners with the quantity and quality of external linguistic input which is required for internal processing, in focusing learner attention on mxkalah of their L2 which differ from target language norms or goals, and in providing collaborative means for learners to build discourse structures and express meanings which are beyond the current level of their linguistic competence.

A key concept in this approach is that interaction not only facilitates language learning but is a causative force in acquisition; further, all of learning is seen as essentially a social process which is grounded in sociocultural settings.

It also as noted above differs from most other social approaches in considering interaction as an essential force rather than as merely a helpful condition for learning. This is considered the usual route to learning, whether what is being learned is language makaalh or some other area of knowledge.

This is an area of potential development, where the learner can achieve that potential only with assistance. One way in which others help the learner in language development within the ZPD is through scaffolding.


This type of mediation also occurs when peers collaborate in constructing language which exceeds the competence of any individual among them.

Very importantly, scaffolding is not something that happens to a learner as a passive recipient, but happens with a learner as an active participant.

For L2 learners, L1 as well as L2 can provide helpful mediation. Talk between peers who are collaborating in tasks is often in their common L1, which provides an efficient and sometimes essential medium for problemsolving and can enhance learning of both L2 and any academic subjects students are studying in the second language. Symbolic mediation can be interactional without involving face-to-face communication: Symbolic mediation need not even necessarily involve language although it usually does but can also be achieved with such nonlinguistic symbols as gestures, diagrams and illustrations, and algebraic symbols.

In addition to interpersonal interaction, S-C Theory requires consideration. This is also viewed by Vygotsky as a sociocultural phenomenon. When reading, for example, we engage in intrapersonal as well as interpersonal activity: A second type of intrapersonal interaction that occurs frequently in beginning stages of L2 learning — and in later stages when the content and structure of L2 input stretches or goes beyond existing language competence — makes use of L1 resources.


This takes place through translation to oneself as part of interpretive problem-solving processes. Yet another type which was of particular interest to Vygotsky is privatespeech.

This is the self-talk which many children in particular engage in that leads to the inner speech that more mature individuals use to control thought and behavior. I was intrigued by this possibility, and recorded children over a period of several weeks while they were just beginning to learn English Saville-Troike I was particularly interested in finding out if the children were using English to themselves, and if so, what they were using the language for, during a period when they were generally very reluctant to try speaking out loud to others in the new language.

Because private speech is generally much lower in volume than interactional speech, and often inaudible unless the observer is within a few inches of the speaker, I equipped these children with wireless radio microphones for recording purposes. For the youngest children I recorded, English was largely something to play with.

High-frequency private vocabulary items for them included butter pecanparking lotskyscraperand Cookie Monster. Both children also demonstrated their attention disleksua sound by creating new words with English phonological structure, including otrabervergoch xisleksia, treerand trumble — impossible sequences in didleksia L1. For somewhat older children, English was used more to comment about ongoing events.

They displayed a higher level of mental activity related to L2 learning by focusing on grammar as well as on the sound of their utterances. This was very clear in private pattern drills, such as those in the following examples that were produced by a five-year-old Japanese L1 boy in his kindergarten class. There are challenges to a socioculturally oriented view of L2 acquisition, however.

The following two facts are somewhat difficult to explain if we hold a strong position that social interaction is an essential causative force in second language learning:. Such learners would not have the benefit of scaffolding with immediate help from other humans, but corrective feedback and other potential enhancements to SLA can be provided by other means. We could still claim that live face-to-face interaction facilitates L2 learning — at least for most people, but not that it is absolutely necessary.

Explaining why some individuals apparently interact quite successfully. In spite of cultural differences in each of these elements, there dislekaia often enough commonality to allow at least some level of meaningful communication between people who do not speak dizleksia same language, but who are cooperative and maklaah to guess.

Communicative events cannot be completed without a common language in the absence of familiar context and props, of course, or when ddisleksia information needs to be conveyed. Students studying in a foreign country, for example, cannot understand or express abstract concepts in academic subject fields without L2 knowledge or L1 translation; however, they may be able to function quite adequately in many social situations while still possessing only limited linguistic resources.

If individuals have need and opportunity to develop increasing competence in the L2, they will do so; if they are not motivated to learn the L2, they may not — dislesia if they have ample social opportunity.

We now shift to consideration of macrosocial factors in looking at how social contexts dosleksia SLA, drawing primarily on the frameworks of the Ethnography of Communication and Social Psychology. These broader societal approaches in research and theory allow exploration of issues maka,ah as how identity, status, and values influence L2 outcomes, and why.

The macrosocial factors we will consider are at several levels in the ecological context of SLA:. Social boundaries that are relevant to SLA may coincide with national borders, but they also exist within and across them as they function to unif from membership; influences on SLA at this level often involve the relationship between native and target language groups, as well as the openness and permeability of community boundaries.

Within nations, institutional forces and constraints often affect the use and knowledge of L2 in relation to such things as social control, political and religious practices, and economic and educational opportunities. Age, gender, and ethnicity are factors of social group membership which may potentially be relevant to SLA. Languages have power and status at global and national levels for both symbolic and practical reasons.

An important symbolic function of language is political identification and cohesion. We see this in the USA, for example, where English is generally accepted as the single national language, and most people consider it important for national unity that all citizens be able to use one language. Immigrants who come from other language backgrounds are expected to add English as a requirement for citizenship, for participation in US democratic processes, for economic mobility, and for access to education and other social services.

Maintenance of indigenous and immigrant languages other than English is not widely encouraged and is often actively jakalah. Indeed, pride in ethnicity along with associated language use can be seen as very threatening to the.